Prof. Leonid Vakhovskyi, Prof. Andriy Ivchenko,
Dr. Tetiana Ivchenko
Luhansk Taras Shevchenko National University (Ukraine)
Abstract. The article deals with the peculiarities of use of presentism as an approach in historical knowledge connected with the relationship between the past and the present. The essence of presentism, its cognitive potential, types, strengths and weaknesses are revealed.
Special attention is paid to the analysis of the cognitive capabilities of presentism as a research strategy in history of education, the identification of the risks that arise in connection with its use. It is shown that the main reasons for using presentism in historical and pedagogical research are as follows: substantiation of the relevance of the chosen topic; construction of a methodological research project; substantiation of the practical significance of the results obtained. The emphasis is made on the fact that the presentist approach, the use of which is inevitable, can lead to the distortion of the past, generate bias and tendentiousness in historical analysis, conclusions, generalizations, interpretations, assessments and, thereby, reduce the objectivity, scientific character and theoretical potential of the results obtained. Overcoming the negative consequences of the use of peresentism requires balance and attitude to the historical and pedagogical experience as a unique, inimitable phenomenon that cannot be transferred and repeated in the present in order to solve up-to-date educational problems.
Keywords: presentism; antiquarism; research strategy; history of education; historical and pedagogical experience.