Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy (Bulgaria)
Abstract. Automation is considered as the basis for the introduction of the fourth industrial revolution in ports and for the implementation of a number of innovations. Often the actual results of container terminal automation do not match the expectations of terminal operators. Through the application of scientific methods of investigation – monitoring, comparative analysis, analysis and synthesis of existing publications on the subject – some problematic issues have been established, such as the lack of common standards, pressure by trade unions, processing of exceptions, etc., calling into question the implementation of any good automated terminal project. The synergistic approach in the modeling, construction and exploitation of automated container terminals leads to the conclusion that, on one hand, a solution to the above issues should be sought in the cooperation between all port stakeholders (automation system manufacturers, software developers, terminal and logistics operators, carriers). On the other hand, the competitiveness of automated container terminals depends on the skills of the port specialists. They must be prepared for the monitoring, analysis and management of automated systems, they must be adequately qualified for the integration of systems and for the processing of exceptions, they must be able to foresee the consequences of each of their actions for the whole system.
Keywords: automated container terminals; lack of standardization; job cuts; exception handling